(Revision: December 15, 2012 at 04:42)

ENG 099 Conversational American English (Dec. 2012) Atom 3:

Language Talk 1 of 10


  • bud, n. IPA: /bʌd/ a small bump on a plant stem; a future leaf or flower.Buds Photo courtesy PDphoto.org
  • signn. IPA: /saɪn/ that by which anything is made known or represented; that which shows evidence; a mark; a token; an indication; a proof.Zodiac signs_16th century_medieval woodcuts [Public Domain]
    • The pictures of animals are signs of the creature names above.
  • mental, adj. IPA: /mɛntəl/ to do with the mind; intellectual.
  • idea, n. IPA: /aɪˈdiə/ a picture in your mind; a future plan: an image formed in the mind of something you may not see in front of you; a notion.The School of Athens (detail). Fresco, Stanza della Segnatura, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican.

Language Talk Dialogue 1 of 10

  • Read the dialogue below where a teacher explains twice and take notes
  • Teacher— I will pronounce these three sounds very slowly and distinctly, thus: b-u-d. Notice, it is the power, or sound, of the letter, and not its name, that I give. What did you hear?
  • T.— I will bold these words, so that you can see them, three letters—b-u-d. Are these letters, taken separately, signs to you of anything?
  • T.— What then do these letters, taken separately, picture to your eye?
  • Student.— They picture the sounds that came to my ear.
  • T.— Letters then are the signs of what?
  • S.— Letters are the signs of sounds.
  • T.— I will pronounce the same three sounds more rapidly, uniting them more closely: bud. These sounds, so united, form a spoken word. Of what do you think when you hear the word bud?
  • S.— I think of a little round thing that grows to be a leafy branch or a flower.
  • T.— Did you see the thing when you were thinking of it?
  • S.— No.
  • T.— Then you must have had a picture of it in your mind. We call this mental picture an idea. What called up this idea?
  • S.— It was called up by the word bud, which I heard.
  • T.— A spoken word then is the sign of what? 


  • Please watch and take notes on the video below from 6:52 to 11:25 [4 minutes 33 seconds] to see the “Friendly American English Greeting” explained by Mr. Danoff.
  • Pay close attention when he discusses appropriate and inappropriate times to use this greeting. It is not appropriate for formal settings, e.g. work; with your teachers and/or when talking to the government.
  • If you can’t see the video below, click here to watch it on YouTube.


  • Please click through the 3 slides below in the gallery and read the captions below to go over the Friendly American English Greeting again.
  • A: “Yo.”
  • B: “Yo.”
  • A: “What’s up?”
  • B: “Not much. You?”
  • A: “Not much.”


  • For the following 3 people, please say which greeting is appropriate: “International English” or “Friendly American English.”
    • Your Math teacher
    • Your boss at work
    • Your American college roommate
  • Please leave your answer in the comments, or via FacebookP2PU and/or Wikiversity.

Copyright Notes


Revision History: